While most managers widely acknowledge the importance of setting goals, it's surprising how many fail to invest the necessary time and effort in developing clear and effective goals for their teams. The consequence of this oversight is that people often find themselves ensnared in what can be termed the "activity trap." They become busy, perhaps even swamped, but their efforts are not necessarily aligned with the right objectives.
In his insightful book, "Leading at a Higher Level," business author Ken Blanchard offers a practical solution for this common managerial challenge: using SMART goals. SMART is an acronym that highlights the most critical elements to consider when setting quality goals:
1. Specific and Measurable: Merely telling someone to "improve" isn't sufficient. A goal needs to be specific, leaving no room for ambiguity. It should pinpoint the area requiring improvement and provide a clear picture of what success looks like and how it will be measured. After all, as the saying goes, "If you can't measure it, you can't manage it." Therefore, goals must be specific, observable, and quantifiable.
2. Motivating: Not every task is inherently exciting, but motivation can make all the difference. Sometimes, all it takes to inspire action is explaining why a particular task is important. The "why" illuminates how an individual's efforts contribute to overall job performance and the broader objectives of the unit, division, organization, and, ultimately, the customer. It clarifies the meaningful impact of their work, answering the fundamental question of whether what they do makes a difference.
3. Attainable: There's a misconception that only unattainable goals can motivate people. In reality, what truly motivates individuals is the opportunity to achieve goals that are challenging but realistic. In a classic study on achievement motivation, researcher David McClelland observed that high achievers set moderately difficult yet attainable goals. They like to stretch themselves without making their objectives unattainable. Those who set goals that are either too easy or impossibly difficult tend to shy away from accountability.
4. Relevant: 80% of an individual's performance is typically derived from just 20% of their activities. Therefore, a goal is relevant for one of these high-impact activities. The aim is to focus on the tasks that truly make a difference in overall performance.
5. Trackable and Time-Bound: Effective goal setting requires the ability to monitor progress or, if necessary, redirect efforts. This means implementing a system for tracking performance. For instance
, if a goal involves completing a report by a specific date, it's prudent to require interim progress reports. This not only enhances the chances of receiving an exceptional final report but also ensures accountability and offers opportunities for course correction.
Well-structured goals have the power to energize people. It's crucial for individuals to clearly understand their areas of accountability and the performance standards by which they will be evaluated. This not only sets them on the path to success but also provides a clear sense of purpose and direction.